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Recycling Building Materials

Green Buildings and Design

Working Bibliography


Source: http://www.csun.edu/~vasishth/Construc_Recycling-bib.htm 

shwani (at) csun.edu 2004

Planning for the Built and Natural Environment



Recycling Building Materials - Working Bibliography


Anonymous. "Building Green," Environmental Manager 7.9 (1996): 1-4. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Energy efficiency and the use of environmentally benign materials can save large sums on utility bills and employee downtime over the the life of a typical commercial or industrial building. Deciding to "build green" does not require a commitment to spend lavishly or earn an advanced degree in architecture. It also is not necessary to sacrifice aesthetics for the environment. Green building principle should ideally be incorporated into a project at the site selection stage. The long-term impacts of a facility can be altered just by orienting the building carefully and making sure it fits well with the site. The design can take maximum advantage of prevailing wind and natural sunlight. Native plants can be used around the outside that require less water and maintenance. By stating in the contract that the contractor will pick up and recycyle packaging and construction material on the the job, a large amount of construction waste can be avoided. Publications such as the American Institute of Architects' Environmental Resource Guide can help in making informed decisions about materials.]


Anonymous. "Initiating Change In C&D Management," Biocycle 1 Jan. 1996: 44-46. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004.. [When King County Solid Waste Division stopped accepting construction and demolition (C&D) debris at its transfer stations, haulers had to take material to private facilities in the southern part of the county. They looked to the wood recyclers as an alternative, and Shawn Doherty of Doherty's Construction Management was the first in line. A high profile job came Doherty's way in 1995 when he was hired by Fletcher Wright Construction to recycle C&D from the Microsoft corporate headquarters expansion project. Three nearly identical buildings were being constructed, allowing for an opportunity to determine the impact of different waste management strategies. Fletcher Wright used its standard waste management practices for the first building, and Doherty was hired to recycle wood, gypsum and corrugated from the second. The result was a $44,000 net savings for the building with a recycling program.]


Anonymous. "Recycling Construction Debris To Build A Park," The American City & County 1 Dec. 2001: 47. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004..  [Newark, OH, has built a 13-acre park largely with materials from road construction project demolitions. Designers of Flory Park accomplished their mission of reusing local resources for learning by using debris from Ohio State Route 16 to build several park amenities. The project started when a group of city officials came together to decide what to do with land that had been donated to the Licking County Foundation nearly 25 years ago. Their first goal was to stem erosion along Raccoon Creek using recycled demolition materials. Once that was accomplished, they decided to use materials left over from the erosion control project to construct a park.]


Anonymous. "Recycling Construction Debris," Plants, Sites And Parks 1 Nov. 2002: 7. Research Library. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. .  [At every construction site, debris like concrete blocks, lumber, plastics, paper and dirt must be removed, and generally, it is simply hauled off to a regional landfill. Construction recycling companies, which specialize in reclaiming those materials, are trying to change that.]


Campman, Nancy E.. "A Sustainable Design Does Not Cost More Industry experts share practices at SMPS/L.A. program," California Construction Link 20 Apr. 2001: 45. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004.. [Focusing on recycling measures to energy conservation, a panel of four AEC professionals gave examples of the benefits of sustainable design at a recent program hosted by the SMPS/L.A. Consultant John Zinner noted that the massive Playa Vista project is fully committed to sustainability. Energy usage in Playa Vista's buildings must be 28 percent below Title 24 requirements, said Zinner, adding that 92 percent of the demolition and construction waste concrete is being used in the roadways for the project.]


Daley, Beth. "Waste-Not Recycling Is Not Just About Tin Cans Anymore. The State Is Moving To Make Heavy Materials - Sinks, Windows, Carpet, You Name It - Standard Fare At Recycling Centers :[Third Edition]," Boston Globe [Boston, Mass.] 4 Feb. 2001,B.1. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Already, the state is giving grants to nonprofit stores that will take the best used materials - such as kitchen cabinets, bathroom countertops and ceramic tiles - and resell them at low rates to low- income and working-class families who want to fix up their homes. A Roxbury store already exists and another is opening in Springfield this spring. One Dorchester store has even teamed up with retailers, such as Nike on Newbury Street and Eddie Bauer in the Burlington Mall, to donate display racks and mannequins to be resold. It's sorely needed, however. Between 1994 and 1999, construction and demolition waste in the state almost doubled to 4.7 million tons annually. Some 75 percent of the heavy stuff - especially asphalt, concrete, bricks, and metal - already is recycled because there is a market for it. But vast amounts of shingles, carpet, wallboards, doors, windows, and other pieces of homes and offices find their way into landfills because the resale and recyclable market is poor. Only about 11 recycling places in the state accept such material from contractors. "Most landfills are gearing up for that ban to come in 2003," said Daniel Barrett, operations manager for the Bourne landfill. However, he says the more material that is required to be recycled, the longer the landfill can operate. Bourne just bought a portable picking machine that sorts metal, wood, and other materials from construction debris.]


Ewadinger, Matt & Kathleen Gray. "Wallboard Scrap Moves Up the Reuse Ladder," Biocycle 1 May. 1998: 53. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [A company in Goldston, North Carolina, Waste Reduction Products Corp. (WRPC), evolved from a study that identified wallboard scrap as a major component of the construction waste stream that had been overlooked as a reusable material. WRPC's ability to manufacture viable products from postindustrial waste presents new opportunities for gypsum waste generators.]


Goldstein, Nora. "Recovery Options for Wood and C&D," Biocycle 1 Jul. 1995: 30-33. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Increasingly, landfill operators are inspecting incoming loads to determine what may might be available for recovery. Among the targets are wood waste, other construction debris, and scrap metal. When the Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority (CMCMUA) in Cape May, New Jersey, began separating incoming loads of waste at its landfill to recover materials for recycling, colleagues in the industry were skeptical. Overall, the CMCMUA is able to recover about 40% of its incoming loads. The Lorain County Resource Recovery Complex in Oberlin, Ohio, part of Browning-Ferris Industries, diverts incoming materials between the three options, depending on their ability to be sorted, reused, or changed into a form that represents value. Sorting wood at the materials recovery facility began about a year ago, removing it from commercial and industrial loads where there is a steady stream of shipping containers and pallets. Overall, the wood recovery program has exceeded the company's original expectations.]


Hepler, Heather. "C&D Waste Recycling: Razing Consciousness," The American City & County 1 Jan. 1994: 32-39. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Construction and demolition (C&D) projects have contributed about 100 million tons of construction waste and demolition debris in the US . In addition to making up 10% to 20% of the matter in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, C&D waste is stored in 1,800 C&D landfills across the US. Most local solid waste departments have not faced the issue of recycling C&D waste, but it will soon be a problem that they are unable to ignore. According to a recent report, there are 3 general categories of waste that are potentially marketable and, therefore, the main concentration of waste recycling facilities. They are inert granular products, such as asphalt and concrete, wood waste products, and ferrous metals. The categories comprise more than 90% of the total C&D waste stream. Ferrous metal is probably one of the most profitable and developed areas of C&D recycling. In 1993, about 62 million tons of steel scrap were recycled. Because of its magnetic properties, the value of the metal, and its universal usage, steel is highly recyclable.]


Hinkle, Alice. "Latest Thing In Recycling: Your Kitchen," Boston Globe, 29 Oct. 2000,1. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [The draft plan attacks the problem by initiatives aimed at boosting recycling and reprocessing of construction waste, incentives to develop new products from the recycled materials, efforts to persuade manufacturers to take responsibility for the life of their products, and a proposed 2003 ban on all nonprocessed construction and demolition debris in landfills. Large haulers are also concerned, including Tom Murphy, general manager at BFI's wood recycling and Peabody transfer stations. As local incinerators and landfills have closed, waste entering these BFI facilities had to be shipped longer distances, raising costs, Murphy said. "We don't do separation here, and I don't have that many options," Murphy said. An increasing number of restrictions on waste disposal also means random inspections of loads that take both extra time and money, he added. "Someone pays one way or the other for disposal. Now the cost is being borne by taxpayers," according to [Scott Cassel]. He said he is optimistic costs for handling construction and demolition debris can be controlled if the state's goals are met - reducing the volume of materials collected, increasing processing and recycling, and developing new markets for recycled materials.]


Hinkle, Alice. "Recycling Firms Seek Ways To Beat Landfill Space Crunch :[Third Edition]," Boston Globe [Boston, Mass.] 29 Oct. 2000,1. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [The draft plan attacks the problem by aiming to boost the recycling of construction waste; creating incentives to develop new products from recycled materials; convincing manufacturers to help recycle their own products; and proposing a ban in 2003 on all non- processed construction debris in landfills. Tom Murphy, general manager at BFI's wood recycling and transfer station in Peabody, is also concerned. As local incinerators and landfills have closed, disposal firms like BFI have had to ship waste longer distances, which raises costs, Murphy said. One center grant funded research to determine the quantity of discarded asphalt shingles and seconds that could be added to create quality asphalt paving. The state has taken a big step in acknowledging the capacity shortfall in construction disposal , said [Steven Changaris]. His group, however, opposes the proposed 2003 ban on disposal.]


Hughes, Terry J. "Group considers possibility of recycling construction debris," Lafayette Business Digest 5 Aug. 1996: 5-5. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Recycling of construction and demolition debris is getting a second look from businesses and government agencies. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and Indiana Department of Commerce started a focus group, called the Construction & Demolition Debris Focus Group, so that construction companies, haulers, landfill facility operators and other environment and government groups can discuss the issue of construction and demolition debris disposal and recycling. "It's a new thing, because everyone sort of ignored construction when they started on recycling," said Dawn Boston, director of Wildcat Creek Solid Waste District. Construction debris is about 20 percent of the waste going into landfills, she said.]


Johnston, Hal & William R. Mincks. "Cost-effective Waste Minimization for Construction Managers," Cost Engineering 1 Jan. 1995: 31-39. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Construction waste and demolition has been estimated by an EPA report to comprise 23% of municipal solid waste. Other studies show equally high percentages. The idea that construction as an industry should begin taking responsibility for reducing its portion of the overall waste stream has been a long time coming. To accomplish major inroads in waste minimization, the industry must create overall strategies. One such strategy is an integrated approach, or an integrated waste management plan. The present method of controlling the risks involved in waste cleanup is to pass all responsibility and coordination to the project subcontractors and not to attempt at bid time to quantify the amount and cost of waste management. As a new approach, it is proposed that contractors develop better tools for evaluating the amount and cost of each subcontractors' waste at bid time. After the award, lower each awarded subcontractor the previously-agreed-to amount, remove the responsibility, and proceed to manage the waste on a total job basis.]


Johnston, Hal, Mincks, William R.. "Waste Management for the Construction Manager," American Association Of Cost Engineers. Transactions Of The American Association Of Cost Engineers 2.(1992): ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [The 3 main groups of waste found in construction are: 1. materials that are potentially recyclable, 2. hazardous waste, and 3. type 3 landfill materials or stable fill materials. The majority of new and remodel-renovation construction waste can go to inert construction and demolition landfills. Recycling of construction waste will be successful only if it is economical to do so. For example, the recycling process of gypsum drywall waste, which comprises 15%-30% of new construction waste volume, involves grinding gypsum board waste, removing the paper, and grinding the gypsum board into a coarse powder. A waste management plan can provide internal guidance and cost control measures, as well as provide evidence of a company compliance program for external agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency. The construction manager must find the methods that are most cost-effective and that will complement one another environmentally.]


Lehman, H. Jane. "Builders wake up to recycling's value :[North Sports Final, W Edition]," Chicago Tribune, 1 May. 1993,3. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Multiply that by the more than 1 million new homes built each year, and "we are talking about a lot of waste," said Debbi Palermini, a Portland , Ore. , environmental consultant specializing in building issues. Refuse discarded by the home construction industry-including wood, drywall, masonry, packing materials, steel and topsoil-accounts for almost a quarter of landfill volume, according to the American Planning Association. "These materials builders are throwing away have another life, but they have to change their management practices and their waste practices," said Palermini, who audits construction wastes by weighing the trash hauled away from a job site.]


Lingard, Helen & Guinevere Gilbert & Peter Graham. "Improving Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling Performance Using Goal Setting and Feedback," Construction Management And Economics 19.8 (2001): 809-817. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [A multiple-baseline experiment design across waste streams was used to determine the effectiveness of a goal setting and feedback intervention in bringing about improved solid waste management performance on an sports stadium construction site in Australia . A desktop method was used to measure the volume of timber and construction waste disposed as landfill and recycled. A general index of material usage efficiency and 2 recycling indices were calculated. Performance was measured each fortnight and formal goal setting and performance feedback were introduced to the timber and concrete waste streams. The intervention was effective in reducing the volume of waste disposed as landfill and increasing material usage efficiency, indicating that solid waste was reduced at source or re-used. Recycling performance did not improve significantly with the introduction of the intervention. This may be due to the way in which construction workers perceive the costs and benefits of recycling.]


O'Connell, Kim A. "Seattle Struts Its Construction Recycling Stuff," Waste Age 1 Nov. 2001: 12-14. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Only one city is synonymous with Starbucks, Microsoft, Boeing and Amazon.com - Seattle . In the past decade, the home of the Space Needle has experienced a 10% population increase, which has resulted in more jobs, offices and construction. Accordingly, Seattle's King County has seen a surge in construction waste that comprises 20% to 30% of the waste stream. To handle burgeoning construction waste, King County has established a comprehensive construction recycling program - saving the region's builders thousands of dollars. Program employees identify upcoming projects that could generate substantial construction waste, contact developers and work with each company to develop a waste management plan. The county also responds to public inquiries and maintains a searchable online database of recyclers and specific materials. Lastly, the county distributes regular publications and how-to guides that include technical language to incorporate recycling into construction contracts.]


O'Connell, Kim. "Seattle Connects Builders With Recyclers," The American City & County 1 Jan. 2002: 14-15. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Although 30% to 40% of construction debris is recycled, King County , WA , aims to increase that rate by promoting construction recycling and connecting builders with recyclers. The Construction Recycling and Green Building Program has two goals: to ensure that job-site material is recycled to the greatest extent possible, and to accelerate the adoption of green building practices, technologies, policies and standards in residential and commercial development.]


O'Reilly, Anne. "How To Design A Resource-Efficient House," Professional Builder 1 Aug. 1997: 74-76. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Construction techniques and product ideas that can be used to create a resource-efficient house are presented. Some of these include: 1. design plans to use standard sizes of materials to eliminate scrap, 2. recycle construction waste, including wood, drywall, metal and cardboard, 3. encourage homeowners to recycle packaging and newspapers by showing a recycling center in model homes, and 4. build the house tight to prevent energy waste.]


Popeck, Charles. "Marketing Green Design and Construction," Southwest Contractor 1 May. 2003: 33. ABI/INFORM Dateline. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [For example, instead of using one dumpster on the jobsite for all construction waste, a green builder may require 4 or more smaller dumpsters to separate lumber, concrete, paper products, and steel for recycling. The space requirement is the same. All it takes is looking at the disposal problem from a different perspective. A local contractor recently recycled 2,000 tons of waste from a project (75 percent of the total waste) that would have otherwise been hauled to the dump! This strategy not only saved the contractor the trucking and tipping fees, but enabled him to put $ in his pocket from selling the recycled waste. Obviously landfill space was conserved and the waste was used to manufacture saleable products. These types of synergies are what green building is all about. As Chairman of the U. S. Green Building Council-Arizona Chapter's Education Committee, my mission is to spread the word about green building and the LEED system to Architects, Engineers, Contractors, Owners, and other building industry entities. The Arizona Chapter recently held our first official LEED Workshop in Phoenix on March 6. I am pleased to announce that the session was sold out at the maximum 84 attendees, and two people even traveled from Hawaii for the session! Starting this fall, we will be offering LEED Workshops every quarter.]


Quinn, Barbara. "Reclaiming Tiles and Saving Landfill Space," Pollution Engineering 1 Oct. 2002: 38-39. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Recycling of construction debris has become important, not only to the construction industry but also to municipal governments that are charged with managing solid waste disposal facilities. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set a goal of recycling 35 percent of municipal solid waste by 2005, which would boost the value of the material recycled from $3.6 billion in 1996 to an anticipated $5.2 billion. EPA documents the value of that recycled material, saying that products made from the 57 million tons of municipal solid waste recycled in 1996 used 408 trillion Btus less energy than would have been needed to make those same products from virgin materials.]


Raloff, Janet. "New Construction: What A Waste," Science News 16 Mar. 1996: 170-170. Research Library. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Researchers at Cornell University audited recyclable materials in construction waste from two houses. The biggest surprise was the uniform ratio of waste types among the two houses he examined and those in other studies.]


Rosta, Paul. "One's Trash Is Another's Treasure," ENR 12 Jun. 1995: 78-78. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [As environmental mandates tighten, landfill space shrinks and costs for virgin resources soar, contractors may find cash in their trash. Construction wastes once routinely discarded at one site are turning into valuable building materials at another and firms can now do their trading electronically.]


Russis, Martha. "Construction Recycling Targeted Hoffman May Mandate Earth-Friendly Development :[Northwest Sports Final, NW Edition]," Chicago Tribune, 14 Jul. 1993,4. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [In a ground-breaking move, Hoffman Estates is considering stricter building requirements that would prevent unused construction debris from going in the trash and encourage developers to use recycled materials for new construction. Under a plan introduced for the first time Monday before a board committee, officials were intrigued by the idea of venturing into another recycling frontier, but wanted industry feedback before deciding whether to move ahead. Among the ideas presented by village recycling coordinator Michael Friesen were requiring builders to develop and prove they have followed through on a recycling plan for discarded materials as a condition for obtaining building and occupancy permits.]


Russis, Martha. "Construction Recycling Targeted," Chicago Tribune [Chicago, Ill.] 14 Jul. 1993,2NW4 Chicago Tribune. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. 

[Hoffman Estates IL is considering stricter building requirements that would prevent unused construction debris from going in the trash and encourage developers to use recycled materials for new construction.]


Russis, Martha. "Recycling Construction Debris A Village Priority :[Northwest Sports Final, NW Edition]," Chicago Tribune (pre-1997 Fulltext) [Chicago, Ill.] 1 Nov. 1993,3. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Last week, trustees directed recycling and solid waste coordinator Jon Franz to investigate ways of developing a plan that may require builders to recycle wood, metal and other items left over from construction jobs. Franz may report back with a plan as early as next month aimed at preventing massive amounts of debris from being buried in landfills.]


Sherman, Rhonda. "The Inside Story of the Greenest Building Complex In the U.S.," Biocycle 1 Dec. 2002: 58-60. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created one of the "greenest" buildings in the US when it built a 1.2 million square foot facility on 132 acres in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina . The agency's goal is to lead by example and prove that its laboratory and office complex can be a model for environmental stewardship at no extra cost in the construction budget. A new mindset, which places the environment on equal footing with cost and performance, guided the design team's decision-making process. They developed a 100-year building with 40% energy savings, 80% construction waste recovery, 100% storm water treatment through native plants and wetlands on site, daylight in offices, and clean indoor air. The EPA campus also was designed to maximize the recycling of paper, aluminum, glass, plastic and cardboard. Individual departments have set up recycling bins and collection stations in areas that generate high volumes of recyclables.]


Simon, Ruth. "Garbage Economics 101," Forbes 12 Nov. 1990: 148-149. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [It appears that something of a garbage shortage is taking place in New England . James Harvey, who owns a commercial trash hauling and recycling outfit in Westboro, Massachusetts, has seen collections drop 20% in 1990 as local construction has slowed and consumer spending has stalled. Browning-Ferris Industries also acknowledges a decline in the volumes of garbage that it collects. The garbage shortfall does not mean that garbage company profits will fall like those of recession-sensitive automobile companies and chemical producers. Yet, as the situation in New England suggests, a weak economy means less industrial waste, less construction debris, and less trash from consumer purchases. If a recession sweeps across the US, all the publicly traded garbage companies would be hurt. That would come as a shock to investors who have been paying as much as 22 times earnings for shares of recession-proof companies like Waste Management. The lesson here is that even trash is subject to the laws of supply and demand.]


Steuteville, Robert. "Taking On The Construction Waste Stream," Biocycle 1 Oct. 1996: 64-66. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Artistic Solid Waste Systems is a partner with Corell Contractor and its subsidiary, Central C&D Recycling, which is handling the processing side of Artistic's 18-month construction and demolition recycling project in Des Moines , Iowa . The collection system is adapted from a program that has been in use since the early 1990s in the Chicago area, developed by a firm called CornerStone. The specialized truck used for the Des Moines project has a grappling hook, which gives the driver the option of stacking particular materials in one section of the truck's rear rolloff container. Artistic, in consultation with Gershman, Brickner & Bratton Inc., will develop a detailed record keeping system for daily logging of the materials collected and processed, as well as quantities of waste disposed. The collection system includes 2 levels of sorting - one by construction workers and the other by the trucker. The final, and most sophisticated, sorting system is at the Central C&D Recycling processing site.]


Swanson, Stevenson & Sabrina L. Miller. "Hard Cash from Concrete Waste," Chicago Tribune [Chicago, Ill.] 15 Jan. 1996,11-10. Chicago Tribune. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Operation Silver Shovel is discussed. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, FBI mole John Christopher and others took advantage of a legal loophole and made millions in profits by piling up mountains of construction debris on vacant lots in poor residential or industrial neighborhoods in Chicago instead of actually recycling it.]


Thompson, Brian L. "Builders Look To Cut Job-Site Waste," Jacksonville Business Journal 28 Mar. 1997: 19-18. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [For years in the construction industry, contractors have finished jobs to find they have not only completed say, a house, but also given rise to a monumental pile of waste. No matter how well planned or how careful the carpenters, construction waste for builders is a given. But the amount of waste has become more of an issue these days as the country becomes conscious about how much it throws away. Between that and the fact that the cost of hauling construction waste away has climbed to unprecedented levels, contractors are having to become more refuse-conscious to keep their job costs down.]


Touart, Adrienne. "C&D management: Recycling at construction sites," Biocycle, 1 Feb. 1998: 53-55. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. . [Sellen Construction Company has adopted recycling as the method of choice for handling waste generated on job sites. As Washington's recycling infrastructure developed, processors for concrete, asphalt, gypsum, wood and other materials entered the marketplace. At the same time, Doherty's Construction Waste Management began to offer extensive, high-level on-site services to divert as much as possible from the landfill, using smaller vehicles, frequent pick ups and custom boxes. Doherty's provided a premium service when larger haulers were not. Finally, Microsoft pushed recycling into high gear. With construction totaling a million square feet a year on its expanding campus in Seattle, Microsoft asked all contractors to pay close attention to recycling. Sellen schedules specified containers for each stage of construction as well as for certain work site areas where specific materials are produced. Sellen's construction waste management policy has also tackled waste reduction, spelling out strategies such as accurate materials estimating and just-in-time deliveries to lessen the likelihood of damage to materials on site.]


Walmer, Tracy. "Only A Tiny Trickle of Trash Gets Processed Into New Life :[FINAL Edition]," USA Today (pre-1997 Fulltext) [Arlington, Va.] 22 Apr. 1991,03E. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [Take New Jersey. The nation's top waste exporter, it has set a 60% recycling goal as its dumps fill up and other states grow increasingly reluctant to take New Jersey's garbage. "New Jersey has what we call New Jersey math,'' says [Harvey Alter], referring to some states' practice of calculating different kinds of trash to boost their recycling tallies. Meanwhile, when officials saw how hard it would be to meet the new goal, they quietly added yard waste and such trash as junked autos and construction debris to their calculations - waste that's traditionally had a high recycling rate - then announced that New Jersey had already surpassed its original goal and was recycling nearly 40% of its trash.]


Watkins-Miller, Elaine. "Right of Salvage," Buildings 1 May. 1996: 32-35. ProQuest. 

LA Public Library , Los Angeles. 4 Apr. 2004. [By recycling construction materials and specifying recycled-content and sustainable building products, leading facilities professionals are finding gold in the green hills of environmental stewardship. In modernization and new construction projects, salvaging and recycling building components cuts down on waste-disposal fees, off-setting construction costs. In considering whether to recycle construction waste, facilities professionals should investigate: 1. local construction-waste disposal fees, 2. local recycled markets and prices, and 3. local recycling capacity and infrastructure. It is suggested that facilities professionals look at life-cycle assessment flow of a given product to find the desired products. This includes: 1. how a material was processed, 2. what are the material's use characteristics, and 3. what are the material's post use characteristics.]


[Last Update: April 13, 2004]



Green Buildings and Design - Working Bibliography


Anonymous. 2001. "10 Goals for Green Design,” The Washington Post [Washington, D.C.] 11 Jan. 2001,H3. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Through Feb. 14, consider 10 case studies of energy-conscious architecture ranging from private residences and low-cost public housing to a museum and university facility.]


Anonymous. 1999, "New Software Tool Identifies Green Design Strategies,” Forest Products Journal 49.4 (1999): 6. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [The Green Building Advisor is an interactive software tool that helps architects, designers, builders, students, and educators who want to examine environmental opportunities for specific building projects to learn about the many elements of green building design.]


Anonymous. 1999. "Green Buildings Can Mean Greenbacks in the Pocket,” ENR 12 Jul. 1999: 96. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [The trend toward "green" buildings is blossoming, as seen by recent moves in New York City and Los Angeles . In New York City late last month, the Department of Design and Construction issued its High Performance Building Guidelines. The emphasis is on high-performing buildings, and the prediction is that operating costs can be slashed substantially.]


Anonymous. 2002. “Building Green Goes Mainstream,” Environment, v44n5 (Jun 2002): 7. [The concept of building green is gaining popularity with corporations, municipalities, and homeowners. In a recent survey, nine out of 10 homeowners said they would pay an average of $2,327 extra for energy-conservation upgrades for new homes.]


Anonymous. 2003. "Do Green Buildings Cost More To Build? " Building Design & Construction : White Paper on Sustainability 1 Nov. 2003: 29-33. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [Do green buildings cost more to build than conventional buildings? And do they produce benefits beyond the norm - improved productivity of occupant workers, better health, higher job satisfaction, or other factors that create value for their owners? These two questions frame the discussion surrounding the business case for sustainable development. For simplicity's sake, they will be reviewed separately here, but it should be recognized that these two questions, taken together, define the value proposition for sustainability. The cost issue came to the fore in the late 1990s with the implementation of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design pilot program and the approval of LEED 2.0 in 2000. Suddenly, the real estate market wanted to know about fees for LEED-accredited professionals, LEED certification costs, perceived added costs for LEED improvements, payback rates, and indirect costs for additional design fees.]


Anonymous. 2003. “Eco Friendly and Energy Efficient,” Appropriate Technology, v30n1 (Mar 2003): 55. [As part of their work, the Tata Energy Research Institute recently built an eco friendly and energy efficient residential training center. Use of climate responsive architecture, the orientation of the building, innovative site planning, judicious landscaping, meticulous planning to induce maximum ventilation, provision for adequate day lighting, the use of a solar water heating system and energy efficient lighting integrated with daylight are some of the striking features of the building. Recycling is also a feature, with waste water being recycled by the so-called "root zone" technique in which the roots of reeds treat waste water from the toilets and kitchen each day.]


Anonymous. 2003. "Green Building: Project Planning & Cost Estimating,” Rev. of: Green Building: Project Planning & Cost Estimating, Cost Engineering 1 Jul. 2003: 31. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [The book Green Building : Project Planning & Cost Estimating, by RS Means Co., is reviewed.]


Archambeault, Bill. 2002. “'Green' Building Design Catches On As Cost-Saver,” The Boston Business Journal 18 Jan. 2002: 5. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004


Benedict, Mark A. & Edward T. McMahon. . Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series. Washington , DC : Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse. http://www.sprawlwatch.org/greeninfrastructure.pdf [This monograph introduces green infrastructure as a strategic approach to land conservation that is critical to the success of smart growth initiatives. Green infrastructure is “smart” conservation that addresses the ecological and social impacts of sprawl and the accelerated consumption and fragmentation of open land. This monograph describes the concept and values of green infrastructure and presents seven principles and associated strategies for successful green infrastructure initiatives.]


Cassidy, Robert et al. 2003. White Paper On Sustainability: A Report On the Green Building Movement. Oak Brook , IL : Building Design & Construction. http://www.bdcmag.com/newstrends/BDCWhitePaperR2.pdf [In this White Paper, the editors of Building Design & Construction offer a brief history of green building; present the results of a specially commissioned survey of our readers; and analyze the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building. The White Paper concludes with an "Action Plan," a set of recommendations designed to encourage further dialogue about sustainable development.]


Choe, Chongwoo & Iain Fraser. "On the Flexibility of Optimal Policies for Green Design,” Environmental And Resource Economics 18.4 (2001): 367-371. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Several recent papers show that different combinations of taxes and subsidies can achieve the social optimum for green design and household waste management when there are various market failures. This note shows that such policy flexibility exists only if all relevant actions by individual agents can be properly targeted by economic instruments. If the household can make a private effort to reduce waste, then an optimal policy is shown to be a unique combination of given economic instruments.]


Conway-Schempf, Noellette & Lester B. Lave. "Enhancing Environmental Quality Through Green Design,” National Forum 76.2 (1996): 34-35.  ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles , CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Although nearly $150 billion is spent annually for pollution control, this amount is insufficient to give Americans the quality of air and water they desire. A better solution is pollution prevention through Green Design--product and process design for the environment.]


Cuesta, Yolanda J. 2002. “As Costs Fall, Interest In 'Green' Buildings Rises,” Sacramento Business Journal 25 Oct. 2002: 34. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 ]


Environmental Stewardship Committee. 2002. The Guidelines for Sustainable Building. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univeristy. http://sustainablebuildings.stanford.edu/art/Sustainable_Guidelines.pdf [The Guideline is intended to serve as both a communication and working tool that aids in planning, design, and construction of new buildings and renovations with an appropriate level of attention to economic, ecological, and social concerns. Section I of The Guideline provides an overview and introduction. It explains how the word “sustainability” is used in the context of this document and why it is important at Stanford University. Section II, Process Phases, describes the process for implementing sustainable principles in a building project, with a discussion of sustainability issues for each phase of design and construction. The Technical Guidelines for sustainability are contained in Section III. They provide technical information in the form of goals and strategies to which Stanford University’s consultants should refer during the design process. The Technical Guidelines are organized by the several areas in which sustainability features can be integrated into the design of any building type: site design and planning, energy use, water management, materials/resources/waste, and indoor environmental quality. Section IV contains a discussion of Funding, Decision Tools, and Metrics that support and document a sustainable building process. The Guideline concludes with an Appendix which contains a Technical Resource Library with a list of resources for further information about sustainable building design and construction.]


Frej, Anne. 2003. Green Buildings and Sustainable Development: Making the Business Case. ULI Land Use Policy Forum Report. Aspen , CO : Urban Land Institute. http://research.uli.org/Content/Reports/PolicyPapers/PFR_680.pdf [In August 2003, the Urban Land Institute convened a panel of 25 experts in Aspen, Colorado, for a one-day forum to discuss the topic, “Green Buildings and Sustainable Development: Making the Business Case.” Participants represented a range of professions including real estate development, architecture and landscape architecture, academia, the business community, and organizations such as ULI and the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) that support sustainable development. The purpose of the forum was to identify the obstacles that interfere with wider acceptance of green buildings and to stimulate a dialogue on how the business case for these buildings can be made more effectively, particularly to the commercial real estate community.]


Gardner, Marilyn. 2004. “Easy On the Eyes and the Environment: The Number of Environmentally Friendly New Homes Is Increasing, As Builders - and Buyers - 'Go Green',” The Christian Science Monitor, (Mar 3, 2004). http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0303/p11s01-lihc.html [Describes example of green design in Florida ]


Herbert, Pat. 1998. “The Environmental Building,” Structural Survey, v16n2 (1998): 87. [This article focuses on a new, low-energy, environmentally advanced building at the Building Research Establishment's site near Waterford, UK. It notes that the building is part of an ongoing project between BRE, designers, manufacturers and other building professionals to investigate comfortable and health workplaces for the next century. Five monitoring programs are presently under way. It describes the building's innovative design, its computerized management system and the use of recycled materials in its construction.]


Johnson, Lena E. 1995. "Sustainability: Towards An Holistic Vision of Architecture," The Structurist, n35-36 (1995-1996): 86-98. [Many understand the term sustainability as referring strictly to the human allocation and use of material resources so as to ensure that these resources will be available to future generations. Physical needs only are deemed worthy of consideration under this definition. In order for a body of theory that embraces the holistic concept of sustainability to evolve successfully, our collective societal consciousness must develop a more substantive vision. K. Loftin argues that "sustainability indicates the responsibility of architecture to sustain and/or support the environment in which it is sited." He claims that "Robinson Crusoe's house-landscape is an example of an Architecture that sustains its immediate environment by becoming one with that environment." However, this definition fails to consider the original human relationship with and responsibility to other entities of our universe. Sustainability is the pursuit of a condition that attempts a cooperative, synergistic, harmonious, and beneficial relationship between humans and ecosystem so that all flourish, ensuring the perpetuation of earth and its organisms.]


Kats, Greg et al. 2003. The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings: A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force, October 2003.

http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/News/News477.pdf  [This report is an extensive cost benefit analysis of green building. It demonstrates conclusively that sustainable building is a cost-effective investment, and its findings should encourage communities across the country to “build green.” Integrating “sustainable” or “green” building practices into the construction of state buildings is a solid financial investment. In the most comprehensive analysis of the financial costs and benefits of green building conducted to date, this report finds that a minimal upfront investment of about two percent of construction costs typically yields life cycle savings of over ten times the initial investment. Developed for the Sustainable Building Task Force, a group of over 40 California state government agencies.]


Kohler, Manfred & Marco Schmidt & Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme & Michael Laar et al. 2002. “Green Roofs In Temperate Climates And In The Hot-Humid Tropics--Far Beyond The Aesthetics,” Environmental Management and Health, v13n4 (2002): 382 (10). [Green roofs are still often seen as a pure aesthetical element in architecture, as a spleen of some "greenies". In fact green roofs already contribute, to some extent, to a better microclimate through evaporation filtering of dust from the air and a decrease in temperatures at the rooftop. In cities like Berlin and Munich many green roofs have already been realised. Coupled with this microclimate improvement, is the thermal comfort improvement under such roofs by more mass, dry or met substrate, and shading through the plants. Besides improving the microclimate and the indoor climate, the retention of rainwater is another important advantage. That means an important reduction of the rainwater input in the sewage system during rainfalls, cutting the peak load, avoiding an overload of the system, which might cause flooding and serious health problems. The risk of flooding in cities, which is increasing in many cities due to a ground sealed by buildings, asphalt and concrete, can be diminished. One recent example of the use of green roofs with this purpose is the Potsdamer Platz in the centre of Berlin, where 100 percent of the rainwater has to be evaporated or used for toilet flushing on the building site. Scientific knowledge on green roofs is still limited to temperate climates, due to a development which took place in central Europe. Since 2000 a scientific project in Rio de Janeiro is checking local parameters, like possible vegetation which can be used and substrate composition Parallel to this, four prototype roofs, three greened and one blank are used to measure the retention rate of the rain water and the temperature on the underside of the roofs in order to analyse the possible improvement of the thermal comfort in buildings. This paper wig describe the scientific results of Germany and discuss the practicability on a larger scale under tropical conditions.]


Kresge Foundation. Undated. Green Building Initiative. http://www.kresge.org/initiatives/green_ini.htm [The Kresge Foundation provides grants to non-profit organizations to support green design and building. This web page contains material pertaining the to grant application process, as well as links to two brochures, titled “Why Build Green?” and “How Do I Build Green?”.]


Lane, Patricia. 2000. "Cuba's Green Design,” Peace Review 12.2 (2000): 319-324. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004


Lewis, Malcolm & Nigel Howard. 2003. The Future of LEED. Accessed December 9, 2003 

Lien  [LEED’s success has created an increasing set of pressures for the real estate industry to grow and evolve to meet a wide variety of industry needs and expectations.]


Lewis, Roger K.. 1999. "It's Not Easy Building Green,” The Washington Post, 29 May. 1999,G09. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Building green. The color of a new project? The use of unseasoned lumber to frame a house? Hardly. In the context of building, "green" is a code word for an environmentally sensitive, resource-conserving philosophy of developing real property. In design, the terms "green" and "sustainable" are fundamentally synonymous. Green development recently was the focus of an all-day workshop at the University of Maryland School of Architecture, where students, like those at other architecture schools, hear about green design and sustainability only occasionally during their studies. The workshop, organized by visiting professor Julie Gabrielli, sensitized students to critical green-design issues and provided them with new information. The workshop ended with a lecture by William D. Browning of Green Development Services, a consulting group established in 1991 by the Colorado-based Rocky Mountain Institute. Green Development was an adviser for the "greening" of the White House, undertaken in the early 1990s by the Clinton administration, and has worked on projects such as affordable housing developed by Habitat for Humanity, commercial building prototypes developed by the (Gerald) Hines organization and a solar-powered village for the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney.]


Monroe, Linda K. 2003. "Doing More With Less,” Buildings 1 Dec. 2003: 4. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Since buildings account for more than one-third of the total energy used in the US, tremendous environmental benefits can be gained by improving energy efficiency in the built environment. Popular technologies being incorporated into new construction and existing facilities include photovoltaic panel systems, solar collectors, cogeneration systems, microturbines, net-metering, and third-party energy purchasing. To further maximize energy efficiency, integrated green design concepts also are being incorporated into existing, buildings and new construction, including downsized, energy-efficient HVAC systems; high-performance windows; and added daylighting. These approaches have been shown to reduce energy and operating costs in buildings from 30% to 80%.


Pfeiffer, Peter. 1999. “Mainstreaming Green Building,” Professional Builder 1 Jul. 1999: 32-34. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [There are 2 common reasons the majority home builders offer for not embracing green building and sustainable design: 1. They do not want to throw out everything they know and relearn how to build green houses. 2. It costs too much to build green houses. The truth is there are ways to easily and affordably integrate sustainable or green techniques into conventional building practices. In one region, the hot, humid Southern states, comfort and energy efficiency are most impacted by the infiltration of outside air and moisture, summertime solar gain, and from internal loads, such as electric lighting. Guidelines for reducing infiltration, solar gain, and green lighting options are discussed.]


Philippidis, Alex. 2001. “Green Buildings Cost More, Save More,” Westchester County Business Journal 5 Mar. 2001: 22. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004


Porritt, Jonathon. 1991. "Reducing All That's Made -- Green Design by Dorothy Mackenzie / Green Architecture by Brenda Vale and Robert Vale,” The Spectator 21 Dec. 1991: 63. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 200


Portland Development Commission. Undated. Greening Portland’s Affordable Housing: Design and Construction Guidelines to Improving Environmental Performance, Tenant Health, and Long-Term Durability in Affordable Housing. Portland, OR. Prepared by Portland Development Commission And City of Portland Green Building Initiative.


RecycleWorks. 2004. San Mateo Countywide Guide: Sustainable Buildings. Redwood City , CA : RecycleWorks, County of San Mateo . http://www.recycleworks.org/pdf/GB-guide-2-23.pdf [The San Mateo Countywide Sustainable Buildings Guidelines and Checklist are provided to encourage you to explore what you can save – for yourself and for the environment – by building green. This booklet aims to explain all the checklist items, some of which may be unfamiliar to some users, and to describe the major benefits and approaches to green. Many items on the checklist and in these guidelines are fairly simple, inexpensive, and easy to accomplish. Almost every project should try to do these practices. Others are more expensive or require a larger departure from some conventional building systems, but offer correspondingly large rewards.]


Reilly, Trish. 2002. "Green By Design: Local Building Councils are Guided by Environmental Principles,” E : The Environmental Magazine 1 May. 2002: 20.  ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 ["We were just astonished when 200 people showed up for our first meeting," says Bob Maddox, director of communications for the Connecticut Energy Cooperative and president of the Connecticut Green Building Council, founded last fall. "It's the younger workers in these companies saying, `This makes an awful lot of sense.' If you're in business and you want the best and brightest talent, you'll be going green, too." Bill Sanders, a Fort Lauderdale architecture photographer, is equally uneasy with the movement. "I'm really skeptical about what's green and what isn't," he says. "Take bamboo flooring: It's a great product, and it makes more sense than maple because it is much faster-growing. But if you have to import it from Thailand, how green is that? People never think about the energy used to bring a product to the location." Green design isn't a marketing ploy. It's a survival technique to ensure a high quality of life. "I think word is getting out about the environmental, health and economic benefits," says Templeton. "People are seeing that really is a win-win situation." Maddox adds, "People are saying, `This is the right thing to do. We want it.'" CONTACT: United States Green Building Council, (202)828-7422, 

www.usgbc.org .]


Resource Renewal Institute. 2001. A Primer: Green Plans – Working Strategies for A Sustainable Future. San Francisco, CA; Feura Bush, NY: RRI.


Rich, Motoko. 2004. “Green Gets Real With Affordable Housing and Affordable Bills,” New York Times [New York, N.Y.] 6 May. 2004, Late Edition (East Coast): F.1. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [Some developers believe the benefits to their community outweigh the costs. One Harlem developer, Carlton Brown, is building 93 subsidized condominiums with geothermal heating and cooling wells and high-efficiency appliances, which he predicts will save residents about $1,000 a year. On top of that, he is installing air filters on ducts and kitchen cupboards that do not emit volatile organic compounds, which the Environmental Protection Agency has warned can exacerbate conditions like asthma. ''Harlem is a hotbed of asthma, and most asthma attacks occur because of bad indoor air quality,'' Mr. Brown said. His subsidized condos, priced at $150,000 to $250,000, are reserved for buyers with incomes from $45,000 to $101,000. (Yes, in New York City, those earning more than $100,000 can qualify for affordable housing.) Mr. Brown said that by re-engineering the building's foundation to lower costs, he could spend more money on green features.]


Ritter, John. 2004. “Buildings Designed In Cool Shades of 'Green': Lower Costs, Higher Demand Produce Eco-Friendly Projects Across the USA,” USA Today [McLean, Va.] 31 Mar. 2004,A.15. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [PHOTOS, Color, Alan S. Weiner for USA TODAY (2); PHOTOS, B/W, Alan S. Weiner for USA TODAY (5); Inspired: Senior project manager [Dennis Wilde], left, and developer [Robert Gerding] in a unit at The [Henry] in Portland , Ore. The Henry: Condominiums were sold out nine months before the building was completed. Topper: A building across from The Henry has a roof planted with greenery to insulate and to reduce runoff. The Henry tower in Portland: Project manager Dennis Wilde, left, and developer Robert Gerding.]


Samuel, Paul D. 1996. "EPA Headquarters Epitomizes 'Green Design' Techniques,” The Daily Record [Baltimore, Md] 8 Jul. 1996,7-16. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [At the planned new headquarters of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Washington, D.C., environmentally-oriented, sustainable design is the order of the day. The headquarters, which will house 3,500 EPA employees when it is completed about 2000, will be located in three interconnected historic buildings on Constitution Avenue, presently occupied by the U.S. Customs Service and the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Washington office of Baltimore-based RTKL Associates heads the team of consultants selected by federal officials to design the massive, 1.2 million-square-foot renovation project, expected to cost more than $140 million upon completion.]


Sell, Shawn. 2001. "Green Design Grows More Eclectic Every Day,” USA Today [McLean, Va.] 9 Feb. 2001,D.5. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles , CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Rockwell's vision is rooted in nature. Grass grows in the lobby -- in plush rectangles at the front desk, on the floor near the elevators and next to the steps of the graceful winding staircase. Guests are encouraged to touch it, stroke it or just pat it like a Chia Pet. "We actually had one man eat some," says Margie Ballejos, a front-desk clerk who says almost everyone has a positive reaction to the turf. "He didn't seem to think anything of it, and it didn't hurt him -- it's only wheat grass." Walking in, it's difficult to miss the striking rows of green curled bamboo that separate the handicapped access ramp from the steps leading into the lobby. The grass is an obvious draw at check- in, but check out the backdrop on the wall behind the front desk. That's where enormous flowers, gracefully painted and etched on 25- foot plaster panels, are warmly lighted in a peachy glow. Identical panels, created by Brooklyn artist Celeste Coughlin, flank the staircase. And be sure to look up if you're standing in the lounge. The ceiling lights have petals. Although inanimate, these floral details subliminally enhance the hotel's decorative theme: Nature reigns. Other designers have started their own forays into the world of green design. London architect John Powson (designer of the Calvin Klein store in Manhattan) is known for his restrained, unexpected use of botanicals, such as a bare tree branch here, a startling plant there. And across the country at The Standard hotel in West Hollywood, designer Shawn Haussman has incorporated live cacti as statues throughout the hotel. Back in New York, at Ian Schrager's Hudson Hotel, the lobby ceiling is an arched canopy of ivy-covered chicken wire. And who could forget or ignore Jeff Koons' Puppy statue at Rockefeller Center this summer (a 43-foot-high topiary covered in 60,000 flower blossoms)?]


Snoonian, Deborah. 2003. “How Green Buildings Are Smarter and Safer; Energy-Saving Technology Can Have Unexpected Side Benefits for Building Safety And Intelligence; One Case Study Shows Us How,” Architectural Record 1 Feb. 2003: 100-104. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [Once in a great while, making a structure more energy-efficient can have spectacular unanticipated benefits. For example, on Sep 11, 2001, a high-tech energy-management system (EMS) played a role in saving many lives and prevented millions of dollars in damage to the Pentagon.]


Steinfeld, Carol. 2003. “The Best Buildings Can't Be Seen,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v58n4 (Jul/Aug 2003): 80A. [While his neighbors mow their lawns, Architect Malcolm Wells just watches the wild grass grow tall-his lawn happens to be his roof. A conventional architect gone green, Wells designs buildings that literally blend into the landscape. Here, Steinfeld details the career Malcolm Wells and features his architectural designs.]


Trust for Public Land. 2000. Building Green Infrastructure. http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/BldgGreen.pdf [Report on using land conservation to preserve water quality presents the cases of four watersheds where land conservation is helping preserve water quality.].


Uher, Thomas E. 1999. Absolute Indicators of Sustainable Construction. Available from the RICS Foundation, London , UK . http://www.rics-foundation.org/publish/document.aspx?did=2071 . [The construction industry imposes considerable loading on the environment and impacts severely on practically every environmental issue affecting sustainability, with buildings and building construction services accounting for around a half of total energy consumption in most developed countries. The present trend in research in sustainable construction focuses largely on achieving better environmental performance of buildings through new technologies and improved efficiencies of building materials and components. 

While environmentally beneficial, marginal efficiencies achieved through this approach are unlikely to offset the total loading on the environment generated by the anticipated increase in building production in the future. This paper argues in favour of adopting absolute indicators of sustainable construction, namely energy consumption and land, for assessing environmental performance.]


USEPA. 1999. Building Deconstruction and Material Reuse: Opportunities in Washington, D.C. Washington , DC : Urban and Economic Development Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.smartgrowth.org/library/DCdeconreport.html [Deconstruction is the process of selectively and systematically disassembling buildings that would otherwise be demolished to generate a supply of materials suitable for reuse in the construction or rehabilitation of other structures. The benefits of deconstruction, ranging from the diversion of demolition debris from landfills to the creation of jobs and job skills, have been documented elsewhere. Numerous examples from across the country illustrate how buildings can be successfully deconstructed and how salvaged materials can be collected and distributed for reuse. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of deconstruction activities in Washington, D.C. and to identify some of the issues that may promote or impede the growth or sustainability of a deconstruction "industry" in the District. Many of these issues are not unique to Washington, D.C., and should be relevant to the consideration of deconstruction potential in other metropolitan areas.]


USGBC. Undated. Making the Business Case for High Performance Green Buildings. Brochure. 


[Presents 10 reasons why green buildings make good business sense.]


Vitulli, Angela & Miriam Landman & Akiko Hayano. 1998. Creating Sustainable Buildings - Volume I. Program Case Studies. Boston, MA: Prepared for the Massachusetts Operational Services Division (OSD) and the Massachusetts Division of Capital Planning and Operations (DCPO). [Considers the Green Builder Program in Austin, TX, and the Citywide Sustainable Building Task Force, Los Angeles, CA.]


Vitulli, Angela & Miriam Landman & Akiko Hayano. 1998. Creating Sustainable Buildings - Volume II. A Resource Guide. Boston, MA: Prepared for the Massachusetts Operational Services Division (OSD) and the Massachusetts Division of Capital Planning and Operations (DCPO).


von Paumgartten, Paul. 2003. “The Business Case for High-Performance Green Buildings: Sustainability and Its Financial Impact,” Journal of Facilities Management 2.1 (2003): 26-34. ProQuest, LAPL, Los Angeles , 13 May. 2004 [This paper endeavours to present building owners, managers, architects and design/builders with a compelling business case for considering a green building for their new construction projects. A green building, for the purposes of this paper, refers to any building that meets the high standards set forth in the US Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System(TM), the pre-eminent metric system by which new buildings are judged to be environmentally conscious. The financial benefits of green buildings are many. They include reduced energy consumption and their associated costs, increased occupant productivity and worker retention, increased market values, and reduced health liability risks due to better indoor air quality. Individual building measures are presented through a tertiary examination of two LEED Certified buildings. These individual benefits are examined further as an integrated building whole, indicating that buildings constructed to LEED standards can save more than 250 per cent of its up-front costs over the course of its 40-year useable life cycle.]


Winchip, Susan M. 2003. "Green Design for A Healthy and Safe Environment,” Journal Of Family And Consumer Sciences 95.2 (2003): 26-32. ProQuest. LA Public Library , Los Angeles, CA. 5 Apr. 2004 [Ecological disasters make it imperative for engineers, designers, architects, and consumers to become involved in environmental issues.This article focuses on environmental issues and explores an emerging concept-"green design"-for managing the built environment.The concept of green design is explored, programs and policies are examined, and case studies of green design are shared.The challenge for families and consumers is to alter conventional purchasing practices and patterns and incorporate environmental considerations. For a sustainable future, Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) professionals should prepare consumers to think responsibly about the environment.]


Yates, Alan. 2001. Quantifying the Business Benefits of Sustainable Buildings: Summary of Existing Research Findings. Centre for Sustainable Construction, Building Research Establishment Ltd. 



[The report concludes that benefits are diverse and potentially very significant. Many are hard and relatively easily quantifiable such as energy costs, construction costs etc. However, the ‘softer’ benefits relating to risk, image, profitability are currently unquantifiable. They are the more significant though and should be the focus of future work under this project.]



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